Adult Learning Mental Skills

Table of Contents

Module One: Getting Started.. 7

Workshop Objectives. 7

Module Two: Bloom’s Taxonomy. 8

Bloom’s Theory. 8

History. 9

New Understanding. 10

Definition. 10

Case Study. 11

Module Two: Review Questions. 12

Module Three: Knowledge. 14

Behavior. 14

Actions. 15

Examples. 15

Implementation. 16

Case Study. 16

Module Three: Review Questions. 17

Module Four: Comprehension.. 19

Behavior. 19

Actions. 20

Examples. 20

Implementation. 21

Case Study. 21

Module Four: Review Questions. 22

Module Five: Application.. 24

Behavior. 24

Actions. 24

Examples. 25

Implementation. 26

Case Study. 26

Module Five: Review Questions. 27

Module Six: Analysis. 29

Behavior. 29

Actions. 30

Examples. 31

Implementation. 32

Case Study. 32

Module Six: Review Questions. 33

Module Seven: Synthesis. 35

Behavior. 35

Actions. 36

Examples. 36

Implementation. 37

Case Study. 37

Module Seven: Review Questions. 38

Module Eight: Evaluation.. 40

Behavior. 40

Actions. 41

Examples. 42

Implementation. 42

Case Study. 43

Module Eight: Review Questions. 44

Module Nine: Updated Version.. 46

Remembering and Understanding. 46

Applying and Analyzing. 47

Evaluating. 47

Creating. 47

Case Study. 48

Module Nine: Review Questions. 49

Module Ten: Types of Knowledge. 51

Factual 51

Conceptual 52

Procedural 53

Metacognitive. 54

Case Study. 55

Module Ten: Review Questions. 56

Module Eleven: Training. 58

Examples. 58

Problem Solving. 59

Qualitative Assessments. 59

Create Plans. 60

Case Study. 61

Module Eleven: Review Questions. 62

Module Twelve: Wrapping Up.. 64

Words from the Wise. 64

Lessons Learned. 64

 

 

Module One: Getting Started

Bloom’s Taxonomy is not just for elementary school teachers. The three domains of the taxonomy apply to adult education as well. In this manual, we will pay attention to the cognitive domain. This is the domain of knowledge and intellect, and it is the main focus of most educators. Although, it is important to remember that it works together with the other domains.

An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.

Benjamin Franklin

 

 

 

 

Workshop Objectives

Research has consistently demonstrated that when clear goals are associated with learning, it occurs more easily and rapidly. With that in mind, let’s review our goals for today.

At the end of this workshop, participants should be able to:

  • Understand Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • Explain the cognitive domain
  • Explore the two cognitive domains
  • Explain types of knowledge
  • Identify training in the cognitive domain

 

A word devoid of thought is a dead thing, and a thought unembodied in words remains a shadow.

Lev S. Vygotsky

 

Module Two: Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy has been a staple of educators for decades, particularly in the cognitive domain. Educators of both children and adults must be aware of the theory’s history and how it has changed over the years. A fundamental understanding  of Bloom’s Taxonomy is essential, particularly when attempting to implement it in the classroom.

Bloom’s Theory

The learning hierarchy is the focus of Bloom’s theory. In the hierarchy, the students master the basic stage of the learning domain before moving on to the next one. Like walking up a flight of stairs, students eventually manage to reach the top. As they master each level, they discover the ability to implement learning strategies and improve their skills. In this theory, teachers use the taxonomy to guide the students through to the higher levels of thinking and understanding. The three domains work together to create learning objectives, guide activities, and develop effective assessments.

Each domain identified is broken down to levels or categories with specific behaviors, activities, and example words that identify when students have mastered skills from each level of the domain.

 

 

 

History

Benjamin Bloom was an education psychologist who developed a taxonomy in 1956, with other experts. The purpose of the taxonomy was to establish educational goals for students to perform evaluations of their performance. The three domains that Bloom and his team discovered were cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The original taxonomy was the cognitive domain, shown below.

 

Other domains would follow later, including the Affective Domain in 1973 and the Psychomotor Domain in 1972. The original Cognitive Domain was updated by a student in 2000, which we will explore later.

 

 

New Understanding

Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl revised the taxonomy to be more action oriented. The updated version removes knowledge, comprehension, and evaluation and adds remembering, understanding, and creativity.

 

Anderson and Krathwohl saw the limitation of the original theory and expanded on it, which we will explore in a later module.

 

Definition

The cognitive domain is what most people associate with education because it is knowledge based. Focusing on the cognitive domain increases intellectual capability. The six levels of the domain move from the simplest at the bottom to the most complex at the top. Some educators, however, do not follow the prescribed order of stages. There is also some disagreement as to whether the original or updated version of the domain is more effective. Situations that require more creative activities typically benefit better from the updated version.

 

 

 

Case Study

Elizabeth was planning to teach a course on emotional intelligence. She decided to focus on the higher levels of the cognitive domain since her students were adults. Over the course of the program, she discovered that the students were not retaining or understanding some of the more basic information. She consulted Scott, her business partner, and he told her that she was skipping over the base of the cognitive domain too quickly. They need to know and understand material in order to improve the higher order thinking skills.

 

 

 

 

Module Two: Review Questions

  1. What is necessary for reaching higher skills?
  1. Hierarchy
  2. Nothing
  3. Develop learning strategies
  4. Define learning
  1. What is created from the domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy?
  1. Learning objectives
  2. Activities
  3. Assessments
  4. All of the above
  1. In what year what Bloom’s Taxonomy developed?
  1. 1973
  2. 1956
  3. 1964
  4. Unknown
  1. What is a domain in Bloom’s Taxonomy?
  1. Cognitive
  2. Psychomotor
  3. Affective
  4. All of the above
  1. What category did the updated model remove?
  1. Understanding
  2. Knowledge
  3. Analysis
  4. Creativity
  1. How was the taxonomy changed?
  1. Action oriented
  2. It was not
  3. 7 stages
  4. None of the above

 

 

  1. What actions benefit from the updated version?
  1. Factual
  2. Emotional
  3. Comprehensive
  4. Creative
  1. What domain do most people focus on?
  1. Affective
  2. Cognitive
  3. Psychomotor
  4. None
  1. What did Elizabeth focus on?
  1. Affective domain
  2. Lower levels
  3. Higher levels
  4. A & C
  1. What was the problem from the case study?
  1. Lack of interest
  2. Failure to synthesize
  3. Poor attitude
  4. Failure to retain

 

 

 

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

Nelson Mandela

 

 

Module Three: Knowledge

In the knowledge stage of cognitive domain, the focus is on memory. For students to be successful, they should be able to recall what they have been taught. Knowledge must be mastered before they can move on to comprehension. Specific behavior, actions, and examples that accompany the knowledge stage that demonstrate mastery.

 

 

 

 

Behavior

The behavior of the knowledge stage is based on recognizing and recalling data. The students who exhibit knowledge when they recite definitions, know rules, and recognize processes, for example. In the work place, recalling pertinent information, such as prices, is knowledge-based behavior. Knowledge is learned through different actions that accompany behavior.

 

 

Actions

·         Take multiple choice test

·         Use study aides

 

Certain actions will help indicate students understand and implement the knowledge stage. Students who show the following actions are demonstrating mastery of the knowledge stage.

  • Read
  • Search online

The list above is not comprehensive, but it is appropriate for students of all ages, including adult learners. These actions should align with the example words that are used to determine learning outcomes. Familiarity with example words will help expand your understanding of the knowledge stage of the cognitive domain.

 

Examples

Keywords are used to define learning outcomes. These examples words are active verbs that teachers use in their objectives and goals for the class. These example words help educators assess performance and determine what level of mastery students have reached. The different domains work together, so you will see overlap in examples between them.

Commonly used keywords for the knowledge stage of the cognitive domain include:

Outcomes begin with action verbs that help define performance measurements.

 

Implementation

When implementing the learning objectives at the knowledge phase of the cognitive domain, the goal is to design activities that help students demonstrate the learning objectives created. In adult learners, this requires providing accurate resources and direction such as books, aides, and lecture. This stage includes facts, concepts, principles, and procedures that are relevant to the subject taught. Be practical in the instruction, and do not overwhelm them with too much information at one time. Pace instruction because overwhelmed students will not be able to retain the knowledge.

 

Case Study

John took over an adult writing class. He began by asking the students to tell him where they were in the class and if they needed him to review anything. He spent the first class reviewing what should be common knowledge this late in the class. After the lesson, he contacted his supervisor. Ellen explained that the previous instructor had expected too much from the students and treated them like they were in an upper level college course. He was going to have to take the students back to the basics for them to be successful.

 

 

 

 

Module Three: Review Questions

  1. What is an example of knowledge?
  1. Unknown
  2. Creativity
  3. Synthesis
  4. Recognize process
  1. What is the behavior based on?
  1. Recalling
  2. Recognizing
  3. A & B
  4. Organizing
  1. What do the actions implement?
  1. Activity
  2. Knowledge stage
  3. Cognition
  4. A & B
  1. What should actions align with?
  1. Receiving
  2. Example words
  3. Assessment
  4. Unknown
  1. What is another name for example verbs?
  1. Outcomes
  2. Goals
  3. A & B
  4. Keywords
  1. What is true of keywords in different domains?
  1. Nothing
  2. May overlap
  3. They are unique
  4. None of the above

 

 

  1. What tool will help implement knowledge?
  1. Lecture
  2. Books
  3. Aides
  4. All of the above
  1. What should be avoided when using the knowledge domain?
  1. Pacing
  2. Instruction
  3. Books
  4. Overwhelming students
  1. What is true of the class John taught?
  1. He took it over
  2. He began it
  3. It was a college course
  4. Unknown
  1. What is Ellen’s relationship to John?
  1. Friend
  2. Mentor
  3. Student
  4. Supervisor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neither comprehension nor learning can take place in an atmosphere of anxiety.

Rose Kennedy

 

Module Four: Comprehension

The second step of the cognitive domain is comprehension. Once students have gained knowledge, the goal is for them to comprehend and understand what they know. It is important to be familiar with the behavior, actions, example verbs, and implementation necessary to support students in their progress through the comprehension stage of this domain.

 

 

 

Behavior

Behavior in this stage requires the students to focus on their own understanding of the information presented. At this point, the students will demonstrate that they have moved beyond simple memorization to understand the meaning of the information and data that is being imparted to them. Students will respond in different ways as they move through this phase of the domain:

  • Reword
  • Interpret
  • Reason
  • Translate

 

 

Actions

There are certain actions that will indicate students are achieving success in the comprehension stage. These actions require the students to show only a low level of understanding of the subject matter. Examples of actions that demonstrate the students’ comprehension:

  • Create examples of information
  • Give solution to problems
  • Interpret the meaning of texts
  • Provide treatment ideas

These are not all the possible actions, but they are a good start. These actions should align with the example words that will be used with learning outcomes. Being familiar with example words will help better your understanding of student responses.

 

Examples

The keywords or example words that explore how students respond at this level of the cognitive domain are necessary of the teacher objectives to determine and assess students’ performance. These example words include:

When establishing keywords, it is important to use action verbs at the beginning.

Implementation

When implementing the learning objectives at the comprehension phase of the cognitive domain, the goal is to design activities that help students gain personal understanding.  Adult learners will require that activities to be designed with their skills and necessities in mind. An example of effective implementation would be asking students to take notes and tell stories. Cooperative learning techniques with small groups all benefit learning comprehension. Essay test are useful evaluation techniques that show student comprehension.

 

 

Case Study

Ed and Claudia chose to teach a course in basic physics. They worked together preparing lessons. Once the class began, Ed noticed that the students did not seem to understand the material. Claudia was pleased that the first test had a decent curve and did not see the trouble. Ed, however, saw that students were capable of recall information, but they could not understand or apply it on their own when he looked at the tests. He convinced Claudia to wait to move forward with the skills.

 

 

 

 

Module Four: Review Questions

  1. How will students respond in this stage?
  1. Interpret
  2. Reword
  3. Reason
  4. All of the above
  1. What should students display?
  1. Memorization
  2. Reading
  3. Activity
  4. Personal understanding
  1. What will action show?
  1. Participation
  2. Application
  3. Knowledge
  4. Understanding
  1. What will understanding example words help?
  1. Organization
  2. Understanding responses
  3. Creativity
  4. All of the above
  1. How should keywords begin?
  1. Nouns
  2. Helping verb
  3. Action verbs
  4. None of the above
  1. What will help assess performance?
  1. Keywords
  2. Objectives
  3. Goals
  4. Domain

 

 

  1. What should activities consider for adult learners?
  1. Skills
  2. Goals
  3. Necessities
  4. A & C
  1. What will NOT improve comprehension?
  1. Essay
  2. Memorization
  3. Cooperative learning
  4. Notes
  1. What was Claudia happy about?
  1. Nothing
  2. Participation
  3. Skill set
  4. A Curve
  1. What did Ed and Claudia decide to do?
  1. Wait
  2. Move forward
  3. Speak with a mentor
  4. A &C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.

Benjamin Franklin

 

 

Module Five: Application

In the application stage, students will begin to apply general or abstract ideas to real world scenarios. The students will use the information that they learn in class and outside of it. At this point, the students go beyond general understanding to the specific implementation.

 

 

 

Behavior

At the application stage, the student behaviors change to implement the general information that they have learned. These behaviors indicate that the students are able to apply information on their own and exercise any theories that they have acquired. For example, an employee who uses the handbook to guide paperwork is applying general data to a specific action. Remember that at this stage, students focus on a general use and application, not complex analysis.

 

Actions

The actions that show application are based on ideas, theories, and principles that the students know and understand. The actions commonly associated with application are:

  • Identify the parts of a process
  • Demonstrates qualitative assessments
  • Able to deconstruct processes
  • Measure needs or requirements
  • Evaluate reliability

These are not the only actions that demonstrate student application, but they are typical examples. The keywords should align with the valuing actions in the learning outcomes. Being familiar with example words will help explore your understanding of applications actions is necessary for evaluation.

Examples

When students display application in the cognitive domain, example words or key words will help identify successful mastery. These terms are used in teacher objectives to assess performance. These example words include:

 

When using keywords with goals and lesson planning, it is necessary to start with action verbs, which makes actions and behaviors clear.

 

 

Implementation

When implementing the learning objectives at the application phase of the cognitive domain, the goal is for students to act on their knowledge.  Activities that are group-based are beneficial for demonstrating application. Additionally, students have the opportunity to demonstrate application when they are able to practice or participate in guided creation of objects. Adult learners are more likely to apply knowledge when it relates to their goals, work, or interests, so try to make any activities relevant to your students.

 

Case Study

Adam was responsible for leading a course on Road Side Safety. He is not excited and read through the mandatory information as quickly as possible while everyone follows along with their books. At the end of the course, he hands out a brief scenario quiz to evaluate understanding. The results were disappointing. Only 52 percent answered accurately. The rest were unable to apply the information. His friend, Gwen, pointed out that the class was not interactive, and students only had the opportunity to apply knowledge at the end.

 

 

 

 

Module Five: Review Questions

  1. What should students be able to exhibit in their behavior?
  1. Exercise theories
  2. Apply information
  3. A & B
  4. None of the above
  1. What should the focus of application be?
  1. Complex analysis
  2. General use
  3. A & B
  4. None of the above
  1. What do valuing actions align with?
  1. Objectives
  2. Commitment
  3. Nothing
  4. Learning outcomes
  1. What are actions based on?
  1. Ideas
  2. Theories
  3. Principles
  4. All of the above
  1. What helps identify mastery?
  1. Application
  2. Displays
  3. Examples
  4. Keywords
  1. What is true of keywords?
  1. They are action verbs
  2. They are nouns
  3. They are passive
  4. None of the above

 

 

  1. What will NOT increase the likelihood that students will apply knowledge?
  1. Goals
  2. Interests
  3. Mandatory
  4. None of the above
  1. What is the benefit of group-based activities?
  1. None
  2. Communication knowledge
  3. Demonstrate comprehension
  4. Demonstrate application
  1. What percentage acted correctly from the case study?
  1. 52
  2. 37
  3. 25
  4. Unknown
  1. How did Adam feel about the course?
  1. Engaged
  2. Unenthusiastic
  3. Excited
  4. Unknown

 

 

 

 

The ultimate authority must always rest with the individual’s own reason and critical analysis.

Dalai Llama

 

Module Six: Analysis

Analysis builds on knowledge and application. At this stage, students are able to breakdown content and recognize relationships. Analysis is closely related to synthesis and evaluation and must be mastered before the students can complete the domain. Specific behaviors, actions, and examples accompany the analysis stage that demonstrate mastery.

 

 

Behavior

In the analysis stage, students build upon application to move towards interpretation. They should be able to understand how the different aspects of a topic relate to each other and interpret the connections in a logical way. This interpretation includes:

 

  • Elements
  • Principles of organization
  • Structure

Their behaviors should also reflect their ability to analyze and logically view the quality and reliability of components.

 

 

 

Actions

The actions in the analysis stage display the ability to identify logical relationships. These actions would include:

 

 

  • Identify process parts
  • Deconstruct methods
  • Qualitative assessments of relationship parts
  • Measure needs
  • Measure requirements
  • Qualitative assessments of values
  • Troubleshoot
  • Recognize misconceptions

The list of actions is not complete, but they are commonly used. The keywords and learning outcomes should align with the actions of the analysis stage. Being familiar with example words will expand your understanding of analysis and recognize behaviors that students express.

 

 

 Examples

Example words or keywords are terms that predict and show how students display analysis in the cognitive domain. They are used in teacher objectives to determine and assess performance. These example words include:

 

 

When using keywords and goals in lesson planning, it is important to begin with action verbs so that it is obvious when students are mastering the analysis level of the cognitive domain.

 

 

 

Implementation

When implementing the analysis stage of the cognitive domain in class, you must require the students to practice logic skills.  An example of implementation from this stage would be having a group of students engage in debate. Troubleshooting equipment would also improve analysis skills. The focus of the analysis stage is making sure that students understand the difference between what is inferred and what is factual. The subject of the instruction will determine the best implementation techniques that you can use.

 

Case Study

Angela and Blake taught a beginners’ course together. Angela wanted to focus on teaching the basic concepts and terminology. She argued that they could save money by not requiring all students to use computers and increasing the class size. Blake pointed out that they needed the opportunity to perform hands-on activities in order to perform analysis effectively even at the beginning stages of the process. She agreed to keep the class the same for the sake of student success.

 

 

 

Module Six: Review Questions

  1. What is included in interpretation?
  1. Elements
  2. Organization
  3. Structure
  4. All of the above
  1. What should students be able to analyze?
  1. Quality
  2. Reliability
  3. A & B
  4. Implementation
  1. What should students identify?
  1. Logical relationships
  2. Familiar knowledge
  3. Academic decisions
  4. None of the above
  1. Keywords are used in _____.
  1. Learning outcomes
  2. Organization
  3. Goals
  4. Reviews
  1. What do action verbs make it easier to recognize?
  1. Student mastery
  2. Development
  3. Relationship
  4. Nothing
  1. What do keywords do?
  1. Predict
  2. Assess
  3. Outcomes
  4. A & B

 

 

  1. What skillset should students practice?
  1. Creativity
  2. None
  3. Values
  4. Logic
  1. What should students be able to identify at this stage?
  1. Instruction
  2. Implementation
  3. Inferences
  4. All of the above
  1. What requirement did Angela want to remove?
  1. Age
  2. None
  3. Skill level
  4. Computer
  1. What did Blake want students to have?
  1. Knowledge
  2. Hands-on experience
  3. Previous experience
  4. All of the above

 

 

 

Get the habit of analysis – analysis will in time enable synthesis to become your habit of mind.

Frank Lloyd Wright

 

 

Module Seven: Synthesis

Analysis and synthesis work together in the cognitive process. Analysis is the ability to break down information logically, but synthesis is the ability to take the parts and make them into a whole. Students need to master both to be successful. Successful mastery is shown in the behavior and activities that students demonstrate both inside the classroom and outside the classroom.

 

 

 

Behavior

Once students understand and develop analysis, they are able to develop synthesis behaviors. They will demonstrate behaviors that include creative thought. Their behavior will show that they can make new and distinctive items and concepts:

 

  • Structures
  • Systems
  • Models
  • Ideas
  • Approaches
  • Operations

The behavior that shows synthesis will use many various elements in creation and have either a unique structure or meaning.

 

 

 

Actions

The actions in the synthesis level display consistency will show creativity and the ability to complete projects. Actions that demonstrate synthesis include:

  • Creating solutions
  • Develop procedures
  • Integrate new methods
  • Build teams
  • Make new protocols
  • Design objects
  • Revise processes

The list of actions is not all-encompassing, but they are commonly used and a good starting point. The keywords and learning outcomes will align with the actions of the synthesis stage. When you are familiar with example words, you will expand your understanding of synthesis and help you recognize actions.

 

Examples

Example words or keywords are terms will predict how students show mastery of synthesis in the cognitive domain. These keywords are used in teacher objectives and learning domains to help teachers evaluate and assess performance. At this stage, the focus will be on completion and creativity. Examples of keywords include:

 

These are just a few keyword examples. When developing keywords, remember to make sure that you use action verbs.

 

Implementation

At the synthesis stage, the implementation must consider the ways to develop creativity and show students how they can develop new ideas on their own. Without promoting creativity, it is not possible to develop synthesis skills. For example, asking students to revise something would connect application and develop synthesis.  Developing networking and essay construction skills would also help implement synthesis in the classroom. The important thing to remember at this stage is giving students the opportunities to grow and develop their creative skills.

 

Case Study

Samantha and Kate were teaching a class for the new system covering the employee time, leaves, and absences. They had to move quickly and showed students how to operate the basic information, so they presented the information using a screen to display actions.

Two weeks after implementing the new system. 40 percent of users made user errors. Although they had been shown the basic skills, they could not think to implement them unless they were exactly like the examples shown.

 

 

 

Module Seven: Review Questions

  1. What will behaviors demonstrate?
  1. Analysis
  2. Understanding
  3. Values are assessed
  4. Creativity
  1. The behavior that shows synthesis will use many various elements in creation and have what unique characteristic(s)?
  1. Structure
  2. Meaning
  3. A & B
  4. None of the above
  1. Actions in the synthesis level will show the ability to ________projects?
  1. Interact
  2. Complete
  3. Value
  4. Process
  1. What do actions align with?
  1. Personal decisions
  2. Academic decisions
  3. Keywords
  4. Unknown
  1. What will the keywords focus on?
  1. Completion
  2. Uniqueness
  3. Nothing
  4. Actions
  1. What predicts student behavior in mastery?
  1. Goals
  2. Nothing
  3. Domains
  4. Example words

 

 

  1. What must implementation develop?
  1. Application
  2. Completion
  3. Emotions
  4. Creativity
  1. What implements synthesis in the classroom?
  1. Lectures
  2. Humanities
  3. Notes
  4. Essay
  1. How did Samantha and Kate show information?
  1. Screen
  2. Nothing
  3. Book
  4. Lesson
  1. What was the percentage of user errors after the class?
  1. 50
  2. 30
  3. 25
  4. 40

 

 

 

 

I like to regard myself as someone who’s capable of critical thought, that is to say, who can evaluate claims.

Bill Nye

 

 

Module Eight: Evaluation

Evaluation is the top of the original cognitive domain. It is a stage in the domain that is not included in every class. The stage, however, is included in doctoral programs. Instructors at the evaluation stage need to be very careful because it is not easy to measure success at this point. The behavior and actions, however, will give clues to the student achievement.

 

 

Behavior

At the evaluation stage, it is important to understand that students, will be able to use qualitative and qualitative assessments themselves.  The goal at this stage is to judge the value of different resources and concepts. Behaviors that indicate that students are exercising evaluation include:

 

  • Critical thinking
  • Evaluate effectiveness
  • Assess external criteria
  • Compare and review strategically

Students who demonstrate these behaviors will do so after building on the synthesis stage of the domain.

 

 

Actions

At the evaluation stage, students will engage in numerous actions. Since this is the pinnacle of the domain, you will see it include and expand on actions of the previous stages. Actions will reflect the students’ abilities to make the best decisions and discover solutions. These actions include:

 

  • Review of strategic options
  • Conduct sustainability ROI
  • Evaluate sustainability
  • Calculate and defend financials
  • Perform risk analysis
  • Complete SWOT analysis

At the point of evaluation, the students will act in a way that demonstrates the ability to act independently in the decision-making process.

 

 

Examples

Example words or keywords are terms teachers implement to establish when students master evaluation in the cognitive domain. These keywords are typically found in teacher objectives and learning domains, but they are effective in different methods of assessment. Examples of keywords include:

This is not a complete list, but it is a good start. When developing keywords for examples, remember that action verbs are necessary.

 

Implementation

The implementation of the evaluation stage of the cognitive domain is more complex than other stages. There are, however, ways to implement learning of evaluation in the classroom. Evaluation is enhanced when students have the ability to use reports and case studies and also work in small groups. Surveys and papers will also improve skills in the evaluation phase. At this stage, the students will show more expertise in their abilities than they will in earlier domains with the same exercises.

 

 

 

Case Study

Jeff and Amy were teaching a debate course. Jeff divided the class into teams, and a rivalry developed. Amy soon discovered that students debated more from emotions. They did include some facts and information in their topics. For the most part, however, the arguments lacked careful evaluation. She and Jeff discussed ways to encourage students to fully evaluate topics before arguing their points of view. They decided to rotate teams to encourage logical thought and evaluation.

 

 

 

 

Module Eight: Review Questions

  1. What will students understand?
  1. Quantitative assessment
  2. Cognition
  3. Qualitative assessment
  4. A & C
  1. What is the goal for behavior at the evaluation stage?
  1. Completion
  2. Judge value
  3. Cognition
  4. Creativity
  1. What will actions include?
  1. Unique actions
  2. Passive behavior
  3. Those from earlier stages
  1. How will students act?
  1. Creatively
  2. Usefully
  3. Independently
  4. Unknown
  1. What is true of the keywords in this stage?
  1. They are nouns
  2. They are active verbs
  3. Nothing
  4. They are helping verbs
  1. What type of assessments work with evaluation assessments?
  1. Qualitative
  2. Quantitative
  3. Various
  4. None of the above

 

 

  1. What is true of implementation at this stage?
  1. Simple
  2. Nothing
  3. Expertise
  4. Complex
  1. What will students show?
  1. Expertise
  2. Nothing
  3. Development
  4. Complexity
  1. What did Jeff do?
  1. Create class
  2. Nothing
  3. Work alone
  4. Divide into teams
  1. What did the students lack?
  1. Nothing
  2. Evaluation
  3. Emotion
  4. Discipline

 

 

 

 

 

Change is the end result of all true learning.

Leo Buscaglia

 

Module Nine: Updated Version

The cognitive domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy was updated by Bloom’s student, Lorin Anderson as well as David Krathwohl in 2000. The new version of the domain employs a more active view of learning and also employs verbs rather than nouns in the stages. The changes need to be noted to determine which method would be most effective.

 

 

 

Remembering and Understanding

Remembering is the new name for the knowledge phase of the domain. In remembering, the student is expected to recall information. It is almost identical, but it focuses more on active memory rather than the ability to find data. Recitation is an example of remembering as is the ability to bring up facts and other data.

Understanding replaces comprehension in the updated domain. Again, it is very similar to the original phase. In each, students demonstrate their ability to extract meaning. The original domain focuses on the material in general, and understanding is taking meaning based on different functions, including activities as well as written material.

 

 

 

Applying and Analyzing

Applying is the equivalent of application. Again, they only have minor differences related to the activity. In applying, students are able to apply what they have learned. In applying, the students implement procedures. The information in this instance also includes situational learning through different techniques such as simulations and presentations.

The original analysis is the ability to break down components while analyzing and also breaking down objects into parts to understand how they relate. The actions that are associated with analyzing include: organizing, differentiating, attributing, and distinguishing. These are specifically mental actions that are shown in graphs, charts, and diagrams.

 

Evaluating

In the original domain, evaluation is the judgment of value. Evaluating replaces synthesis in the updated version of the cognitive domain, switching from the final stage. In evaluating, students make decisions by using criticism based on standards. The evaluation in this taxonomy is a process that can be seen reports, recommendations, and demonstrations. According to the updated cognitive domain, it is necessary to develop evaluating skills before effective creation, which would be synthesis in the original cognitive domain.

 

Creating

Creating changes places with evaluating and is similar to synthesis. With synthesis, the students combine parts to create new resources. In the creation stage, the students put the parts together to generate a whole through reorganizing, generating, producing, and planning. In creating, the students must put parts together in a way that is unique, not a reproduced. According to Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl, this is the most complex stage of the cognitive domain.

 

 

 

Case Study

Liz taught a creative writing class. She implemented the original cognitive domain in her lesson plans. During the course of her class, she noticed that the students were often better at evaluating statements and making judgments than they were at producing unique and individual content. After speaking with another teacher, Ryan, she considered following his example. He used the updated domain because it is active and lists creativity at a higher stage.

 

 

 

 

Module Nine: Review Questions

  1. What is an example of remembering?
  1. Reflect values
  2. Align with mission
  3. Outline performance
  4. Recitation
  1. Where will students Not find meaning?
  1. Functions
  2. Feelings
  3. Activities
  4. Writings
  1. What technique would improve applying?
  1. Lectures
  2. Presentations
  3. Learning Goals
  4. None of the above
  1. What is Not an action associated with analyzing?
  1. Graphs
  2. Organizing
  3. Attributing
  4. Distinguishing
  1. What is criticism based on?
  1. Standards
  2. Timing
  3. Trust
  4. Emotion
  1. What shows evaluation in the taxonomy?
  1. Reports
  2. Recommendation
  3. Demonstration
  4. All of the above

 

 

  1. What is the most complex stage of this domain?
  1. Evaluation
  2. Synthesis
  3. Evaluating
  4. Creating
  1. What is a characteristic of creating?
  1. Reproduced
  2. Unique
  3. Copied
  4. Numerical
  1. What did Liz implement?
  1. Affective Domain
  2. Nothing
  3. Original Cognitive domain
  4. Updated cognitive domain
  1. What is Ryan’s relationship to Liz?
  1. Supervisor
  2. Another teacher
  3. Mentor
  4. Unknown

 

 

 

 

Module Ten: Types of Knowledge

Bloom’s original cognitive domain identified three different types or levels of knowledge. These were factual, conceptual, and procedural. The updated domain added a fourth level, the metacognitive. Understanding these levels of knowledge and their differences is necessary for implementing the cognitive domain.

 

Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.

Plato

 

Factual

Factual knowledge is the information that students must be familiar with in order to problem solve or use to become familiar with the students’ field of study. There are subtypes associated with factual knowledge according to the theory by Anderson.

 

Factual knowledge includes basic facts. For example, the American presidents, parts of the anatomy, or the musical works of a composer are all examples of factual knowledge.

 

Conceptual

At the conceptual level, the students focus on concepts and ideas. The elements of larger structures and how they operate should be recognized at this level. Students see the interrelationship and how each element works together. The recognized subsets include:

 

Examples of this knowledge would include the theory of gravity, time periods, or models of government.

 

 

 

Procedural

The procedural level of knowledge is where students know how to do things. At this level, the students develop inquiry methods, skill criteria, techniques, methods, and algorithms, according to the second taxonomy. The established subtypes are:

 

At this level of knowledge, students should be able to engage in literary criticism. Procedural knowledge would also be able to create art and analyze.

 

 

Metacognitive

The added knowledge level is metacognitive. This level of knowledge is defined as being cognizant of general and personal cognition. This final stage includes the subtypes, according to the updated domain:

 

Examples of metacognitive knowledge are the use of organizers, mnemonic devices, and understanding of personal motivation.

 

 

 

Case Study

Peter and Janet were leading computer certification classes. Peter decided to use the original domain and all of its components. His students did well, but the student’s in Janet’s class appeared more motivated. They personally connected with the instruction and were very self-aware. As a result, more students earned certifications and twice as many went further in their training. Peter asks Janet about her class, and she told him she paid close attention to the metacognitive domain.

 

 

 

Module Ten: Review Questions

  1. What will make students familiar with their subject matter?
  1. Conceptual knowledge
  2. Metacognitive knowledge
  3. Factual knowledge
  4. All of the above
  1. What is Not an example of factual knowledge?
  1. American Presidents
  2. Anatomy
  3. Works of a composer
  4. Theory of gravity
  1. What do students see at the conceptual level?
  1. Communication
  2. Interrelationships
  3. Elements
  4. Structures
  1. What is Not an example of factual knowledge?
  1. Anatomy
  2. Time periods
  3. Government models
  4. Theory of gravity
  1. What is Not something that students would engage in with procedural knowledge?
  1. Create art
  2. Literary criticism
  3. Focus on concepts
  4. Analysis
  1. What do students develop?
  1. Inquiry methods
  2. Techniques
  3. Algorithms
  4. All of the above

 

 

  1. What knowledge was added in the second cognitive domain?
  1. Conceptual
  2. Factual
  3. Metacognitive
  4. None
  1. What is an example of using metacognitive knowledge?
  1. Organizers
  2. Mnemonic devices
  3. A & B
  4. None of the above
  1. How many of Janet’s students went into further training than Peter’s?
  1. None
  2. One half
  3. Twice
  4. Unknown
  1. What did Janet implement that Peter did not?
  1. Affective domain
  2. Metacognitive knowledge
  3. Unknown
  4. Nothing

 

 

I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.

Albert Einstein

 

Module Eleven: Training

The training in the cognitive domain requires careful planning and implementation. This is where familiarity with the teaching models and assessments comes in handy, making it easier to complete plans and improve success. This is a beneficial introduction that you should build on in the future.

 

 

 

Examples

There are examples of different teaching and training models and concepts that can be implemented in the cognitive domain to improve understanding at separate phases:

 

  • Memory model – Move students through the sensory stage with relevant information to short-term memory. Chosen information is placed in long-term memory.
  • Concept models – There are different concept models, but they focus on teaching concepts and using tools such as concept mapping.

The number of training examples is extensive. The important thing to remember is that students should be met at their skill level with relevant information.

 

 

 

Problem Solving

Problem-solving is higher in the cognitive domain. There are typically four different stages of problem-solving. These are:

  • Identify the problem
  • Discover possible solutions
  • Look at solution alternatives
  • Evaluate and choose

Problem-solving should be modeled and is particularly effective in research projects and experiments.

 

Qualitative Assessments

Qualitative assessments are effective in establishing student progress and are implemented in the cognitive domain, where students should know how to practice them. Qualitative assessments are more inductive than deductive. Methods of qualitative assessments that can be implemented in the classroom include:

 

  • Observation
  • Focus groups
  • Interviews
  • Documentation

When employing qualitative assessments, you must develop the criteria for evaluation.

 

 

 

Create Plans

Lesson plans help establish the object and work towards goals in education. The information from the domain, including actions and keywords, will help guide the creation of plans. A typical lesson plan uses a matrix, and there is more than one way to create a lesson plan matrix. The goal should be established and used to guide the planning matrix.

 

Example:

 

 

 

 

Case Study

Sarah was filling in for an accounting instructor at work. She was not sure how long she was going to be there, but she already decided not to use Roy’s lesson plans. She also failed to create her own. The students did not move in a steady progression. By the time Roy returned the next month, the students were two weeks behind. He was frustrated with Sarah and asked her help in catching up the class.

 

 

 

Module Eleven: Review Questions

  1. What is the end goal of the memory model?
  1. Sensory stage
  2. Short-term memory
  3. Long-term memory
  4. None of the above
  1. What do concept models use?
  1. Nothing
  2. Lecture
  3. Sensory stage
  4. Concept mapping
  1. When is problem solving effective?
  1. Research project
  2. Lecture
  3. Experiment
  4. A & C
  1. How many stages are there?
  1. 4
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 2
  1. What are qualitative assessments?
  1. Formal
  2. Inductive
  3. Deductive
  4. None of the above
  1. What must be developed?
  1. Modeling
  2. Practice
  3. A & B
  4. Evaluation criteria

 

 

  1. What should be established to guide the matrix?
  1. Goal
  2. Responsibility
  3. Objective
  4. None of the above
  1. What is included in lesson plans?
  1. Domain
  2. Actions
  3. Keywords
  4. All of the above
  1. What did Sarah Not use?
  1. Nothing
  2. Lecture
  3. Lesson plans
  4. Instruction
  1. How far behind were the students when Roy returned?
  1. Unknown
  2. 3 weeks
  3. 2 weeks
  4. 5 weeks

 

Success is no accident. It is hard work, perseverance, learning, studying, sacrifice and most of all, love of what you are doing or learning to do.

Pele

 

Module Twelve: Wrapping Up

Although this workshop is coming to a close, we hope that your journey to learning about the cognitive domain is just beginning. Please take a moment to review and update your action plan. This will be a key tool to guide your progress in the days, weeks, months, and years to come. We wish you the best of luck on the rest of your travels!

 

 

 

Words from the Wise

  • John Dewey: Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.
  • Anthony J D’Angelo: Develop a passion for learning. If you do, you will never cease to grow.
  • Albert Einstein: Intellectual growth should commence at birth and cease only at death.

Lessons Learned

  • Understand Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • Explain the cognitive domain
  • Explore the two cognitive domains
  • Explain types of knowledge
  • Identify training in the cognitive domain